Kurdistan ("Land of the Kurds".; old Curdistan; ancient Corduene) is a geo-cultural region wherein the Kurds form a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. The earliest official use of the toponym Kurdistan dates back to 12th century when Saljukid ruler Sanjar conquered the Kurdish territory and established a province of that name, centered at Bahar, near modern Hamadan. Contemporary use of Kurdistan refers to parts of eastern Turkey (Turkish Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Iranian Kurdistan) and northern Syria inhabited mainly by Kurds, Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges, and covering small portions of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Iraqi Kurdistan first gained autonomous status in 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government and its status was re-confirmed as an autonomous entity within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005. There is also a province by the name Kurdistan in Iran, although it does not enjoy self-rule. Some Kurdish nationalist organizations seek to create an independent nation state of Kurdistan, consisting of some or...


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