Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई, Mumbaī, IPA: [ˈmʊm.bəi] (help·info)), formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The city proper is the largest city in India, and the second most populous city in the world with approximately 14 million inhabitants. Along with the neighbouring suburbs of Navi Mumbai and Thane, Mumbai forms the world's 4th largest urban agglomeration with around 19 million people. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. Mumbai's port handles around 60% of India's maritime cargo. It has been ranked as an Alpha world city, as of 2008. In the third century BCE, the Maurya Empire transformed the seven islands of Bombay into a centre of Hindu and Buddhist culture. Then, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to Portuguese settlers and subsequently to the British East India Company. They were merged and the city was named Bombay. During the mid-18th century, it emerged as a significant trading town. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century and...


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